Purpose: We study the prevalence of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in squamous cell carcinoma and control tissue of the penis.
Materials and methods: The technique of polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification was used to detect specific human papillomavirus DNA sequences in archival pathological and control tissues. We analyzed 42 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma, 13 of carcinoma in situ, 12 of penile intraepithelial neoplasia, 3 of verrucous carcinoma and 25 of balanitis xerotica obliterans, as well as 29 routine neonatal circumcision specimens and 32 adult circumcision specimens.
Results: Overall, the detection rates for human papillomavirus DNA in the study and control tissues were 55% (23 of 42 cases) for invasive squamous cell carcinoma, 92% (12 of 13) for carcinoma in situ, 92% (11 of 12) for penile intraepithelial neoplasia, 0% (0 of 3) for verrucous carcinoma, 4% (1 of 25) for balanitis xerotica obliterans, 0% (0 of 29) for neonatal circumcision and 9% (3 of 32) for adult circumcision. In all groups human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common genotype identified.
Conclusions: The prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA is significantly greater in carcinoma of the penis than in control tissue. Moreover, the prevalence is greater in noninvasive lesions (carcinoma in situ and penile intraepithelial neoplasia) than in invasive carcinoma.