Congenital toxoplasmosis results from maternal primary infection during pregnancy. In our serologic screening study 42 of 16,733 pregnant women had findings suggestive of primary infection. Here we document the outcome of their offspring, 37 of 39 liveborn children. After 12 months postnatally, serologically verified congenital toxoplasmosis appeared in 4 children. All these children had persisting IgG at the age of 12 months by both the dye test and the IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All the congenitally infected infants had also specific IgM and IgA and showed significant increases in avidity of specific IgG during the 12-month follow-up. One of them had a unilateral retinal scar and intracranial calcifications. An additional 3 infants of the mothers with primary infection during early pregnancy presented with unilateral retinal scars but without seroresponses during the first 12 months of life. Maternal high avidity of IgG during the first trimester is a strong indicator against primary infection during pregnancy; the fetuses of such mothers are at low risk for congenital toxoplasmosis.