Early and late results of proximal pancreatoduodenectomy were determined in a personal and consecutive series of 100 patients (64 men, 36 women, mean age 51.9 years). Final diagnoses were chronic pancreatitis in 35, idiopathic bile duct stricture in 1, carcinoma of the head of pancreas in 27, and other periampullary tumors in 37 (duodenal carcinoma 11, ampullary carcinoma 11, neuroendocrine tumor 10, cholangiocarcinoma 5). Mean follow-up period was 30.5 months (range 3.5-132.0 months). Resection was conventional (including distal gastrectomy) in 39 patients and conservative (retaining the stomach, pylorus, and duodenal cap) in 61 patients. Resection for inflammatory disease caused greater operative blood loss (mean 2.29 versus 1.75 L; p = 0.054) and a longer operative time (6.2 versus 5.2 hours; p = 0.040) than resection for neoplastic disease. There were four operative deaths, two from leakage of the pancreatic anastomosis; another two patients survived pancreatojejunostomy leaks. Twenty patients developed postoperative complications, seven of whom required reoperation. Good pain relief was obtained in 76% of patients with chronic pancreatitis, but five required completion distal pancreatectomy at a mean 22.8 months after the first resection. Mean survival of patients with pancreatic cancer was 13.2 months. Sixteen patients with other periampullary cancers are still alive 41.6 months after the operation.