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Clinical Trial
. 1995 Apr;13(5):503-8.
doi: 10.1016/0264-410x(94)00003-6.

Effect of DETOX as an Adjuvant for Melanoma Vaccine

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Clinical Trial

Effect of DETOX as an Adjuvant for Melanoma Vaccine

N Schultz et al. Vaccine. .

Abstract

The identification of effective adjuvants is critical for tumor vaccine development. Towards this end, we examined whether the immunogenicity of a melanoma vaccine could be potentiated by DETOX, an adjuvant consisting of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and purified mycobacterial cell-wall skeleton (CWS). Nineteen patients with resected stage III melanoma were immunized with a polyvalent melanoma antigen vaccine (40 micrograms) admixed with DETOX, q3 wks x 4. Seven patients received vaccine + low-dose DETOX (10 micrograms MPL + 100 micrograms CWS) and 12 received vaccine + high-dose DETOX (20 micrograms MPL + 200 micrograms CWS). A non-randomized control group of 35 patients was treated similarly with 40 micrograms vaccine + alum. One week after the fourth vaccine immunization, melanoma antibodies were increased over baseline in 7/7 (100%) patients treated with vaccine + low-dose DETOX, 8/12 (67%) patients treated with vaccine + high-dose DETOX, and in 4/19 (21%) of vaccine + alum patients. For the entire DETOX group, the antibody response rate was 15/19 (79%) compared 4/19 (21%) in the alum group (p < 0.001). In contrast, a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response (> or = 15 mm increase in DTH response over baseline) was induced in 50% of the entire DETOX group versus in 47% of the alum group. Median disease-free (DF) survival for the entire DETOX group was 17.8 months compared with 32.1 months in the alum group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, DETOX markedly potentiated antibody but had little effect on DTH responses to melanoma vaccine immunization. It did not appear to improve disease-free survival in comparison to alum in this non-randomized study.

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