Background: Restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become an established surgery for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis.
Purpose: The authors report the results of an 11-year experience of restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA at a tertiary referral center.
Methods: Chart review was performed for 1005 patients undergoing IPAA from 1983 through 1993. Preoperative histopathologic diagnoses were ulcerative colitis (n = 858), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 62), indeterminate colitis (n = 75), and miscellaneous (n = 10). Information was obtained regarding patient demographics, type and duration of diseases, previous operations, and indications for surgery. Data were collected on surgical procedure and postoperative pathologic diagnosis. Early (within 30 days after surgery) and late complications were noted. Follow-up included an annual function and quality-of-life questionnaire, physical examination, and biopsies of the pouch and anal transitional zone.
Results: Of the 1005 patients (455 women), postoperative histopathologic diagnoses were as follows: ulcerative colitis (n = 812), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 62), indeterminate colitis (n = 54), Crohn's disease (n = 67), and miscellaneous (n = 10). During a mean follow-up time of 35 months (range 1-125 months), histopathologic diagnoses were changed for 25 patients. The overall mortality rate was 1% (n = 10 patients, early = 4, late = 6); one death (0.1%) was related to pouch necrosis and sepsis. The overall morbidity rate was 62.7% (1218 complications in 630 patients; early, n = 27.5%; late, n = 50.5%). Septic complication and reoperation rates were 6.8% and 24%, respectively. The ileal pouch was removed in 34 patients (3.4%), and it is nonfunctional in 11 (1%). Functional results and quality of life were good to excellent in 93% of the patients with complete data (n = 645) and are similar for patients with ulcerative colitis, familial adenomatous polyposis, indeterminate colitis, and Crohn's disease. Patients who underwent operations from 1983 through 1988 have similar functional results and quality of life compared with patients who underwent operations after 1988.
Conclusion: Restorative proctocolectomy with an IPAA is a safe procedure, with low mortality and major morbidity rates. Although total morbidity rate is appreciable, functional results generally are good and patient satisfaction is high.