The present review evaluates methods for electron microscopic immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, using post-embedding techniques and colloidal gold as a label. Special emphasis is given to double labeling immunocytochemistry and double in situ hybridization and to their combined application on the same specimen. Brief guidelines are presented for fixation, embedding media, the use of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and nucleic acid probes. Conditions for labeling and binding of antibody and nucleic acid probes to the target and protocols for direct and indirect immunodetection are discussed. Combinations of direct and indirect immunodetections in multiple labeling experiments are summarized.