GATA-3 is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of T lymphocytes and additionally expressed in several chicken and mouse embryonic tissues. Using in situ hybridization, we found that the human GATA-3 gene is selectively expressed in the developing kidney. GATA-3 mRNA is first detected in the Wolffian duct from the time of its emergence in the embryonic intermediate mesoderm and further expressed in the collecting ducts of the mesonephros until its involution. In the metanephros, GATA-3 is expressed in the ureteric bud where it is constitutively transcribed, throughout development, along the branching process that gives rise to the whole collecting system of the definitive kidney. Besides the Wolffian duct and derivatives, we also report the expression of GATA-3 gene in the glomerular mesangium and adjacent endocapillary cells, in both meso- and metanephros. This early and specific expression of the GATA-3 gene suggests a role for this transcription factor in the differentiation of the human kidney.