Our findings demonstrate the presence of VDR in various human prostate cancer cell lines and in primary cultures derived from normal, BPH and prostate cancer. In addition, 1,25-D induced several bioresponses in these cells including growth inhibition and PSA stimulation. Based on examples in many different malignant cells as well as our data in prostate cells, that vitamin D is anti-proliferative and promotes cellular maturation, it seem clear that vitamin D must be viewed as an important cellular modulator of growth and differentiation if addition to its classical role as regulator of calcium homeostasis. In this respect, vitamin D has the potential to have beneficial actions on various malignancies including prostate cancer. Its ultimate role in prostate cancer remains to be determined, but 1,25-D may prove useful in chemoprevention and/or differentiation therapy. We believe the data currently available provide the basis for an optimistic view on the possible use of vitamin D to treat prostate cancer in patients and that further investigation is clearly warranted to better define its potential therapeutic utility.