Methionine-dependence is a tumor-specific biochemical defect expressed by the inability or decreased ability of tumors to grow under the condition of methionine-depletion. Many reports have shown that methionine-dependence occurs in human tumors of all types, including fresh surgical specimens in vitro. However, in vivo determinations of methionine-dependence have thus far been made only in rodent malignant tumors using methionine-deficient diets. We report here for the first time that human cancer xenografts in nude mice are methionine-dependent and when fed a methionine-free diet tumor growth is greatly inhibited. The body weight of mice on the methionine-free diet was found to be maintainable by once-per-week administration of methionine. The data presented here suggest that methionine-dependence can be an important target for human cancer treatment.