The effects of biotin on ammonia concentration in blood and brain were evaluated in hyperammonemic rats and mice. Rats were injected with 5 mmol/kg BW of ammonium acetate, and mice were injected with 10 mmol/kg BW. Increases in blood ammonia levels in rats 15-30 min after ammonia loading were prevented by treatment with 0.2 ml/100 g BW of biotin or 0.04 ml/100 g BW of arginine-glutamate with statistical significance. Blood ammonia levels after ammonia loading were lower, although not significantly, in the arginine glutamate-treated rats than in the biotin-treated animals. In mice also, increases in blood and brain ammonia levels after ammonia loading were prevented by the administration of biotin. The decrease in brain glutamate and aspartate after ammonia loading was lower and the brain glutamine level was higher in biotin-treated mice than in the controls. These findings indicate the protective effect of biotin against ammonia intoxication.