The expression of certain MHC class I allotypes by potential target cells can inhibit NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We recently identified the NKB1 surface Ag, expressed on T and NK cell subsets, as a putative inhibitory receptor for HLA-B class I molecules possessing the Bw4 serologic epitope. NKB1 is a 70-kDa glycoprotein that after deglycosylation migrates as a 50-kDa protein as determined by SDS-PAGE. A cDNA encoding the NKB1 receptor was cloned from a NKB1+T cell cDNA library by expression in COS-7 cells using the anti-NKB1 mAb DX9. NKB1 is a member of the lg superfamily containing three lg-like domains in the extracellular region and is related to the recently identified family (p58/NKAT) of human NK and T cell surface molecules that appear to function as inhibitory receptors for HLA class I.