The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the profile of neurobehavioral effects of rat amylin (r-amylin) and rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (rCGRP), two peptides having a 50% structural homology. The effects of synthetic r-amylin and rCGRP administered in several doses (0.312-80.0 micrograms) into the lateral cerebro-ventricle of rats on spontaneous activity, muscular tone, body temperature, nociception, food intake as well as their potential for inducing catalepsy, were investigated. Intraventricular administration of r-amylin or rCGRP significantly reduced spontaneous motor activity and markedly increased body temperature of animals in a dose-dependent related fashion. rCGRP produced a significant increase in muscular tone and induced cataleptic effect in animals, but r-amylin had no effect on these variables. Furthermore, neither r-amylin nor rCGRP were able to induce any significant effect on nociceptive response time of animals in the tail immersion test even with doses as large as 80.0 micrograms. Finally, the two peptides did not affect ad libitum food intake, but significantly reduced food consumption in 22 h food-deprived animals. Together, the results of the present study suggest that amylin may be involved in a diversity of neurophysiological processes but displays a different profile of neurobehavioral effects to that of CGRP which may involve different receptors.