Current techniques of enucleation: a survey of 5,439 intraorbital implants and a review of the literature

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995 Jun;11(2):77-86; discussion 87-8.


Enucleation is a commonly performed procedure. A multitude of intraorbital implants are available for use following enucleation. Each has advantages and disadvantages. This survey report represents the most comprehensive evaluation yet of the current trends in the rehabilitation of the anophthalmic socket. The membership of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASOPRS) was surveyed. Information was requested regarding preferred intraorbital implants, complications associated with each implant, and some details of current surgical techniques. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was used in 56% of primary enucleations by this group as compared to 1% in 1989. In comparison to other leading implants, HA was found to have equally low or lower complication rates when poor motility, infection, extrusion, migration, superior sulcus deformity, enophthalmos, lower lid malposition, and contracted fornices were assessed. A detailed discussion of these various complications is presented. The majority (59%) of ophthalmic plastic surgeons use donor sclera when placing an intraorbital implant. HA was clearly the implant material most used by ophthalmic plastic surgeons in 1992, and may be the material of choice for enucleation. To date it has achieved better postoperative results and a favorable side effect profile. Because it has been available for only 5 years, more time is necessary to determine its long-term success rate. Despite theoretical concerns of the transmission of infectious agents with the use of donor sclera, the majority of surgeons use this material when placing an intraorbital implant.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anophthalmos / rehabilitation
  • Data Collection
  • Durapatite
  • Eye Enucleation / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orbit / surgery*
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Prostheses and Implants*
  • Sclera / transplantation
  • Societies, Medical


  • Durapatite