We present an 18-year-old woman who was diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML M2), and in whom chromosome analysis of bone marrow cells revealed t(7;11), an abnormality rarely found in leukemias with a differentiation potency. She relapsed 1 year after complete remission was achieved by chemotherapy. Bone marrow examination then revealed a t(7;11) abnormality in 48 of 50 metaphases examined, even when there were less than 7.5% leukemic blasts in the marrow, indicating that the morphologically normal cells were derived from leukemic blasts. The number of leukemia clones with the additional abnormalities in chromosome 5 increased, with concurrent development of eosinophilia, fever, asthma-like symptoms, erythema, itching, and hepatosplenomegaly. Elevation of interleukin 5 (IL-5) in serum and an enhanced expression of IL-5 mRNA were also detected. The increase in IL-5 may have been produced by an abnormality on chromosome 5.