Objective: To study the effect of amylose content on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects by serving fixed amounts of simple starchy foods with a varying but strictly controlled water, fat and guar gum content.
Design: A blind, randomised, balanced cross-over study.
Setting: The kitchen of the Nutrition Research Unit in the Unilever Research Laboratorium.
Subjects: Apparently healthy employees of Unilever Research Laboratorium.
Interventions: Subjects consumed, after an overnight fast, either a drink (12 men), a pudding (6 men and 6 women), a roll without (5 men and 6 women) or a roll with guar gum (12 men) as breakfast and the same amount of the same food as mid-morning snack. Each subject consumed the experimental food prepared in four ways: either with high- or normal-amylose starch, and with or without added fat. At 30 and 90 min after consumption of the breakfast or the snack a blood sample was taken for determination of glucose and insulin.
Results: Raising the amount of amylose in starchy drinks and puddings, but not in rolls, lowered postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Fat addition to starchy drinks, puddings and rolls attenuated postprandial glucose responses, irrespective of the amount of amylose or guar gum present. Addition of guar gum to rolls reduced glucose and insulin responses. Glucose tolerance tended to be less after consumption of the experimental foods as mid-morning snack than after consumption as breakfast.
Conclusion: The physico-chemical composition of foods does influence the effect of the amylose:amylopectin ratio in starchy foods on postprandial glucose and insulin responses.