We implanted transluminal stents in 24 hypertensive patients with a critical atherosclerotic ostial renal artery stenosis (28 arteries). Immediate revascularisation was successful in all. Follow-up angiography at 6 months, available in 18 patients, revealed restenosis twice. In another patient restenosis was suspected and confirmed by angiography at 2 months. Hence, the total restenosis rate was 3 of 19 patients (16%) and 3 of 23 arteries (13%). Two patients developed renal insufficiency due to cholesterol embolism. In the remaining 22 patients renal function improved (n = 8) or stabilised (n = 14). Although all had to resume antihypertensive treatment, blood pressure normalised in 15 patients, improved in one, remained unchanged in five and worsened in one.