MIF as a glucocorticoid-induced modulator of cytokine production

Nature. 1995 Sep 7;377(6544):68-71. doi: 10.1038/377068a0.


Glucocorticoid hormones are important for vital functions and act to modulate inflammatory and immune responses. Yet, in contrast to other hormonal systems, no endogenous mediators have been identified that can directly counter-regulate their potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Recent investigations of the protein macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which was discovered originally to be a T-lymphocyte-derived factor, have established it to be a pro-inflammatory pituitary and macrophage cytokine and a critical mediator of septic shock. Here we report the unexpected finding that low concentrations of glucocorticoids induce rather than inhibit MIF production from macrophages. MIF then acts to override glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of cytokine secretion by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes and to overcome glucocorticoid protection against lethal endotoxaemia. These observations identify a unique counter-regulatory system that functions to control inflammatory and immune responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Line
  • Cytokines / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Dexamethasone / pharmacology
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Glucocorticoids / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / physiology
  • Immunity / physiology
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors / biosynthesis
  • Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors / physiology*
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology
  • Shock, Septic / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Cytokines
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Dexamethasone
  • Hydrocortisone