Policy as intervention: environmental and policy approaches to the prevention of cardiovascular disease

Am J Public Health. 1995 Sep;85(9):1207-11. doi: 10.2105/ajph.85.9.1207.


This paper describes the evolution of efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease, from individual health education approaches to broader community education efforts and, finally, to comprehensive and integrated programs addressing environmental, policy, and individual behavior change. Policies are divided into two areas: legislation/regulation and organizational policy. Environmental strategies are measures that alter or control the physical or social environment. Dimensions along which these strategies might be implemented are provided. Policy and environmental approaches can be justified on economic, strategic, and theoretical grounds. Experiences from other fields and other countries provide a framework for conceptualizing cardiovascular disease prevention approaches.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Environmental Health
  • Health Behavior
  • Health Education
  • Health Policy*
  • Health Services Needs and Demand
  • Humans
  • Organizational Innovation
  • Public Health*
  • Risk Factors