Classic human enteric caliciviruses (HuCVs) have a distinctive morphology and are primarily associated with pediatric acute gastroenteritis. Although morphologically distinct from the small round structured viruses (SRSVs), the classic HuCVs are thought to be closely related and were anticipated to have a similar genome organisation. We report the first genome sequence and molecular characterisation of a classic human enteric calicivirus associated with a case of acute vomiting and diarrhoea in an infant. The RNA genome (7266 nt) is smaller than the genome of SRSVs from the two genetic groups and has a unique arrangement of open reading frames. Further analysis of the 3' terminal 3 kb from a second unrelated isolate confirmed this genomic organisation. Analysis of capsid and RNA polymerase sequences together with the unique genomic organisation of classic HuCV suggest these viruses are more closely related to the animal caliciviruses than the enteric SRSV group of viruses.