Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in the nuclei of squamous epithelial cells. HPVs can be classified into high-risk (e.g., types 16, 18, 31, and 33) or low-risk (e.g., types 6, 11, and 30), depending on their association with benign or malignant tumors. We recently described the association of HPV-16 and -18 with esophagus squamous cell cancer. HPV replication was studied in representative cell lines derived from esophagus cancers. HPV-16 and -18 genomes were independently transiently transfected into HCE-4 and HCE-7 cell lines with and without E1 and E2 genes under heterologous promoters. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that these cell lines support viral replication. However, heterologous E1 and E2 are not required for HPV replication. These findings suggest that specific host nuclear factors in esophageal squamous epithelial cells may support HPV replication.