Impact of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on outcome in nonpenetrating head injury. Part I: A proposed computerized tomography grading scale

J Neurosurg. 1995 Sep;83(3):445-52. doi: 10.3171/jns.1995.83.3.0445.


The presence of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) on admission computerized tomography (CT) scans obtained from patients suffering from severe, nonpenetrating head injury has been shown to be associated with a worse outcome than the injury alone would warrant. However, no previous study has provided a simple means of relating the amount of tSAH, its location, or other abnormal findings on initial head CT scans to outcome in patients with non-penetrating head injury. In this study, admission head CT scans from 252 patients with tSAH, treated at a single institution, were reviewed to ascertain thickness of the tSAH; its location; evidence of mass lesion(s); shift of midline structures (< or = 5 mm vs. > 5 mm); basal cistern effacement; and cortical sulcal effacement. The CT scans were then organized into Grades 1 to 4 with 1 indicating thin tSAH (< or = 5 mm); 2, thick tSAH (> 5 mm); 3, thin tSAH with mass lesion(s); and 4, thick tSAH with mass lesion(s). A stepwise regression analysis of CT features ranked them in descending order of contribution to Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at the time of discharge from acute hospitalization as follows: basal cistern effacement, thickness of tSAH, cortical sulcal effacement, presence of mass lesion(s), and location of tSAH. A shift of midline structures was not found to be a significant variable. Further analysis comparing CT grades and admission postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores was highly significant. Patients with lower CT grades had better admission GCS values and discharge GOS scores than those with higher CT grades. From their experience, the authors conclude that their CT grading scale is simple and reliable and relates significantly to outcome at the time of discharge from acute hospitalization.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / complications*
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Regression Analysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / classification
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging*
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Wounds, Nonpenetrating / complications*