Genesis of a dural arteriovenous malformation in a rat model

J Neurosurg. 1995 Sep;83(3):539-45. doi: 10.3171/jns.1995.83.3.0539.


A rat model was developed to determine the role of sinus thrombosis and elevated sinus pressures in the pathogenesis of dural arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Five protocols were tested to compare various sinus pressures and thrombosis of a sinus: 1) Control I, sham operation (five animals); 2) Control II, occlusion of the right common carotid artery, the right external jugular vein, and the vein draining the left transverse sinus, as well as thrombosis of the sagittal sinus (10 animals); 3) arteriovenous fistula (AVF) I, anastomosis of the right common carotid artery to the external jugular vein causing retrograde flow through the transverse sinus (10 animals); 4) AVF II, anastomosis (as described in AVF I) and thrombosis of the sagittal sinus (12 animals); 5) AVF III, anastomosis (as described in AVF I) as well as thrombosis of the sagittal sinus and occlusion of the vein draining the transverse sinus on the left (12 animals). Mean arterial and sagittal sinus pressures were monitored and cerebral angiograms were obtained intraoperatively and again 90 days later. Afterward, the animals were sacrificed and their brains and dura were examined histologically. Formation of a fistula resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) threefold increase in sagittal sinus pressure in the AVF II group and a significant (p < 0.05) sixfold increase in the AVF III group. Seven dural AVMs (three in the AVF II group and four in the AVF III group) were demonstrated angiographically and histologically. The seven malformations were located adjacent to a thrombosed sagittal sinus. All lesions were within the dura and sinus wall with direct thrombus-sinus wall connections demonstrated in four of the malformations. The other three lesions displayed arteriovenous connections within the sinus wall and dura. These data suggest the importance of not only sinus thrombosis but also sinus hypertension in the development of a dural AVM.

MeSH terms

  • Anastomosis, Surgical
  • Animals
  • Brain Ischemia / etiology
  • Brain Ischemia / pathology
  • Carotid Artery, Common / surgery
  • Cerebral Angiography
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Dura Mater / blood supply*
  • Female
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnostic imaging
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / etiology*
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / physiopathology
  • Jugular Veins / surgery
  • Male
  • Pressure
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / complications*
  • Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / physiopathology