Protein Phosphorylation and Regulation of Carbon Metabolism in Gram-Negative Versus Gram-Positive Bacteria

Trends Biochem Sci. 1995 Jul;20(7):267-71. doi: 10.1016/s0968-0004(00)89041-6.


Bacteria impose regulatory mechanisms on metabolic processes to ensure that the needs of the cell are met but not exceeded. Here, we discuss the basic features of a mechanism by which carbohydrate catabolism in Gram-positive bacteria is regulated. Although the physiological consequences of this regulation are the same as in Gram-negative bacteria, the mechanism is entirely different. These regulatory processes evidently evolved late, after the divergence of Gram-negative bacteria, even though the targets of regulation are universal.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism*
  • Escherichia coli Proteins*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / metabolism*
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / metabolism*
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins*
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Symporters*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • LacY protein, E coli
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
  • Symporters
  • lactose permease
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System