Based on an own material of 19 patients with syringomyelia and on the related literature a survey is given on the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, postoperative evaluation and the dynamics of CSF and cyst fluids, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. MRI is the preferred method of investigation for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of syringomyelia. 2. Using MRI, it is possible to study fluid flow in the vertebral canal and the movements of the syrinx fluid. The data are as yet limited, but in the future will form an important contribution to our understanding of the pathogenesis of syringomyelia and to the choice of a treatment method. 3. MRI is important for the postoperative follow-up of patients with syringomyelia, including tracking the cyst and detecting complications.