Recent developments in surgery and basic science research offer aesthetic surgeons the prospect of scarless repair. Studies in fetal wound healing provide both cellular and molecular models of optimal tissue healing without scar formation. Furthermore, craniofacial surgeons may one day operate on cleft lip, cleft palate, and other congenital malformations in utero. Cytokine research has begun to unravel possibilities for modulating the wound-healing inflammatory response in hopes of limiting scar formation. This article presents research on these developments and comments on their possible applications to aesthetic surgery.