Environmental and biological monitoring of chloroform in indoor swimming pools

J Chromatogr A. 1995 Aug 25;710(1):181-90. doi: 10.1016/0021-9673(95)00432-m.


The presence of chloroform as the result of disinfection with sodium hypochlorite was demonstrated in the water and ambient air of indoor swimming pools. Environmental monitoring was performed in 12 indoor swimming pools in northern Italy and the level of human exposure was assessed. Biological monitoring performed by gas chromatography on human plasma and alveolar air samples evidenced that the uptake of chloroform in swimmers varies according to the intensity of the physical activity and age. The elimination of chloroform in alveolar air in one subject showed a very short half-life (from 20 to 27 min) and a complete clearance within 10 h after the end of exposure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Breath Tests
  • Chloroform / analysis*
  • Chloroform / blood
  • Chloroform / pharmacokinetics
  • Chromatography, Gas
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pulmonary Alveoli
  • Swimming Pools*


  • Chloroform