The present report describes a fatal case of imported AIDS-related disseminated histoplasmosis capsulati infection associated with multiple coexisting infections, diagnosed with cultural recovery of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum with a commercial radiometric Mycobacterium medium. The epidemiological and clinical features of histoplasmosis capsulati and duboisii in Europe are reviewed by examining also 69 documented cases of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum infection (25 in AIDS patients) and 17 cases of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii infection (3 in HIV-infected patients), described since 1980. This draws special attention to the role played during recent years by the emergence of the HIV pandemic and the progressive intensification of travel and immigration as risk factors for this disease in our continent. AIDS patients, who are prone to multiple concurrent opportunistic infections which may share clinical and laboratory features with each other and with other HIV-associated diseases, represent the most relevant current group at risk for severe disseminated histoplasmosis, which may come to medical attention far from their place of origin.