Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of a 130 kilobase cotton (Gossypium hirsuitum L.) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing a high proportion of single-copy DNA produced a large pair of FISH signals on the distal end of the long arm of a pair of chromosomes of the D-genome species G. raimondii Ulbr. and produced a fainter pair of signals on a small submetacentric pair of chromosomes of the A-genome species G. herbaceum L. The signals were synthetic with a nucleolar organizer region in G. raimondii and G. herbaceum. Signal pairs were easily recognized in interphase and metaphase cells either with or without suppression of repetitive sequences with unlabeled G. hirsutum C0t-1 DNA. High quality FISH results were consistently obtained and image analysis was not required for viewing or photography. Results indicate that FISH of BAC clones is an excellent tool for the establishment of new molecular cytogenetic markers in plants and will likely prove instrumental in the development of useful physical maps for many economically important crop species.