Sea bream serum displayed bactericidal and hemolytic activities. These activities were depleted when serum was incubated with different activators of the alternative complement pathway (ACP). Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited both the hemolytic and bactericidal activities, while ethyleneglycol-bis (B-aminoethyl ether)-N, N, N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) was not inhibitory. An antibody against the putative third component of sea bream component (C3) was produced. It was observed by immunoelectrophoresis that the sea bream C3 and human C3 migrated in the same position. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis showed that sea bream C3 exhibited a similar pattern of activation when compared with its human counterpart. The anti-sea bream C3 antibody inhibited both bactericidal and hemolytic activities. It was concluded that both serum actions were displayed by the ACP. The best conditions for the sea bream ACP titration were investigated. Of all mammal erythrocytes tested, rabbit erythrocytes (RaRBC) were found to be the best ACP activators and thus were used for the titration. Sea bream showed very high ACP titers when compared with those of mammals. Absorption of naturally occurring antibodies against rabbit RaRBC did not influence the ACP titers. Enzymatic removal of sialic acid from different mammalian erythrocytes increased the sensitivity of these cells to hemolysis mediated by the sea bream ACP.