The results of endoscopic treatment of early gastric cancers were evaluated. The lesions were divided into two groups: the group with an absolute indication (AI) and the other with a relative indication (RI) for endoscopic treatment. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was performed on 106 lesions in 104 patients. In addition, 108 patients were treated by laser irradiation (LI). The status of the patients were serially assessed during the postoperative period. The residual rate in AI patients who underwent EMR was 30.3%, whereas the rate in RI patients was 80%. The residual rate in 70 AI patients who underwent LI was 0%. Although the recurrence rate was 4.2%, the cumulative curative rate after additional treatments was 100%. The residual rate in RI patients who underwent LI was 17.4%, and the recurrence rate was 13.2%. The cumulative curative rate after additional treatments was 97.4%. In AI patients, the initial mode of treatment use was EMR. Patients who exhibited residual cancerous tissue after EMR or those in whom EMR was difficult to perform, either technically or otherwise, underwent LI. EMR was the first choice therapeutic technique because endoscopic specimens obtained could be subjected to histopathologic examination. In RI patients, the conventional operation was the therapeutic technique of first choice. The LI procedure was performed in those who either refused surgery or who could not undergo operative treatment for various reasons.