Update on current techniques of myocardial protection

Ann Thorac Surg. 1995 Sep;60(3):805-14. doi: 10.1016/0003-4975(95)00572-3.


The spectrum of strategies for myocardial protection has led to the artificial creation of adversarial positions in regard to warm versus cold blood cardioplegia, antegrade versus retrograde delivery, and intermittent versus continuous perfusion. This report reviews the background for the aforementioned methods, that has led to the evolution of an integrated myocardial management technique that combines the advantages of the aforementioned methods to compensate for their individual shortcomings. This approach coordinates the myocardial protective strategies with the continuity of the operation so that the surgical procedure is never interrupted. It provides unimpaired vision, avoids unnecessary ischemia and cardioplegic overdose, allows aortic clamping as soon as cardiopulmonary bypass is started, permits aortic unclamping and discontinuation of bypass shortly after the technical procedure is completed, and minimizes the ration of ischemia and cardiopulmonary bypass. The preliminary results in 1,474 patients from four centers with surgeons participating in the infrastructure of this method are presented.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aorta
  • Blood
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Cardioplegic Solutions / administration & dosage
  • Cardioplegic Solutions / adverse effects
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass / methods
  • Cold Temperature
  • Constriction
  • Drug Overdose
  • Heart Arrest, Induced / adverse effects
  • Heart Arrest, Induced / methods*
  • Humans
  • Perfusion
  • Temperature


  • Cardioplegic Solutions