The anterior periventricular nucleus (PeN) regulates GH secretion by synthesizing and releasing somatotropin release-inhibiting factor (SRIF) into the portal circulation. This territory of the diencephalon is heavily innervated by axons of galanin (GAL)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons. The connections between GAL-IR fibers and hypophysiotropic SRIF neurons were studied by means of immunocytochemical double labeling at the light and electron microscopic levels. Retrograde axonal labeling with Fluoro-Gold revealed the anterior PeN as the main site of hypophysiotropic SRIF-synthesizing neurons. These cells were densely surrounded by GALergic axons that made contacts with their cell bodies and dendrites. At the ultrastructural level, diaminobenzidine-labeled SRIF neurons received synapsing GAL-IR axons marked with silver-gold particles. Both axo-somatic and axo-dendritic forms of connections were observed. These morphochemical data revealed an interaction between GAL- and SRIF-synthesizing neurons in the anterior PeN. Furthermore, the presence of synaptic connections between these neuronal systems suggests a role for GAL in the control of SRIF secretion and, in turn, in the regulation of GH release.