The refractive error of 186 eyes with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) was determined. It was found that the risk for the development of this form of ARMD increased with increasing degrees of hyperopia. The 96 patients afflicted with bilateral CNV were significantly older than the unilaterally affected patients (P = 0.027). Abnormal choroidal perfusion was identified in 66.4% of the fluorescein angiograms. These findings support the concept that hyperopic shortening in eyes afflicted with ARMD might cause secondary changes in the choroidal vasculature, predisposing them to choroidal neovascularization.