The study was carried out to investigate the effect of azelastine on the Substance P (SP) concentration in bronchoalveolar (BAL) and nasal (NAL) lavage obtained from atopic grass pollen asthmatics and non-atopic healthy subjects. In BAL and NAL fluids there was a significant elevation in the baseline concentration of SP between asthmatics and volunteers. Allergen provocation induced a rise of SP in BAL and NAL in asthmatics, but not in volunteers. Azelastine pre-treatment resulted in a significant reduction of SP in baseline concentration of SP in BAL and NAL from asthmatics. An elevation of SP in BAL or NAL fluids after allergen provocation was not seen in asthmatics pretreated with azelastine. Azelastine did not influence the SP concentration in BAL and NAL of volunteers.