Microvascular murine endothelial cells lines transformed by middle T oncogene of polyoma virus maintain the biological characteristics of nontransformed microvascular endothelial cells (EC). By using cell lines originated from different anatomical districts (thymus, brain, heart, and skin), we demonstrated that murine granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induces proliferation of murine microvascular endothelial cells at nanomolar concentrations without any cooperation with fetal calf serum. The proliferative effect on murine cells is less than that elicited by epidermal growth factor (EGF), used as standard for this function. G-CSF also promotes the migration of tEnd.1 endothelial cell line assayed by Boyden chamber technique. The analysis of transcript for G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) by Northern blot hybridization and by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) shows that these cell lines have specific mRNA, with the size of that present in myeloid cells. These results indicate that G-CSF operates in the microvascular endothelial cells by a mechanism related to the presence of a specific receptor.