The modular architecture of a new family of growth regulators related to connective tissue growth factor

FEBS Lett. 1993 Jul 26;327(2):125-30. doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(93)80155-n.


Recently, several groups have characterized and sequenced members of a new family of growth regulators (originally called cef10, connective tissue growth factor, fisp-12, cyr61, or, alternatively, beta IG-M1 and beta IG-M2), all of which belong to immediate-early genes expressed after induction by growth factors or certain oncogenes. Sequence analysis of this family revealed the presence of four distinct modules. Each module has homologues in other extracellular mosaic proteins such as Von Willebrand factor, slit, thrombospondins, fibrillar collagens, IGF-binding proteins and mucins. Classification and analysis of these modules suggests the location of binding regions and, by analogy to better characterized modules in other proteins, sheds some light onto the structure of this new family.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / genetics
  • Collagen / chemistry
  • Collagen / genetics
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor
  • Cysteine-Rich Protein 61
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Growth Substances / chemistry*
  • Growth Substances / genetics
  • Humans
  • Immediate-Early Proteins*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins*
  • Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry
  • Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Proteins / chemistry
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Thrombospondins
  • von Willebrand Factor / chemistry
  • von Willebrand Factor / genetics


  • CCN1 protein, human
  • CCN2 protein, human
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Cysteine-Rich Protein 61
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Growth Substances
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Proteins
  • Thrombospondins
  • sli protein, Drosophila
  • von Willebrand Factor
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor
  • Collagen