Strategies of antioxidant defense

Eur J Biochem. 1993 Jul 15;215(2):213-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb18025.x.


Cellular protection against the deleterious effects of reactive oxidants generated in aerobic metabolism, called oxidative stress, is organized at multiple levels. Defense strategies include three levels of protection; prevention, interception, and repair. Regulation of the antioxidant capacity includes the maintenance of adequate levels of antioxidant and the localization of antioxidant compounds and enzymes. Short-term and long-term adaptation and cell specialisation in these functions are new areas of interest. Control over the activity of prooxidant enzymes, such as NADPH oxidase and NO synthases, is crucial. Synthetic antioxidants mimic biological strategies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Base Sequence
  • Free Radicals
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • NADPH Oxidases
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Oxidants / metabolism*
  • Oxidants / toxicity
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / toxicity


  • Antioxidants
  • Free Radicals
  • Oxidants
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases
  • NADPH Oxidases