The sequential distribution of transneuronally infected neurons was studied in the olfactory pathway of mice after unilateral inoculation of the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain in the nasal cavity. A first cycle of viral multiplication was observed in a subpopulation of receptor cells scattered in the main olfactory epithelium and in the septal organ. No viral spread from cell body to cell body was reported even in later stages of infection. The second round of viral replication which took place in the ipsilateral main olfactory bulb at 2 and 2.5 days post-inoculation (p.i.), involved second order neurons and periglomerular cells, known to be directly connected with the axon terminals of receptor cells. Also reported as a result of a second cycle of viral replication, was surprisingly the spread of CVS at 2 and 2.5 days p.i. in bulbar interneurons located in the internal plexiform layer and in the superficial granule cell layer, as well as that of 2 ipsilateral cerebral nuclei, the anterior olfactory nucleus and the horizontal limb of the diagonal band. From day 3, a rapid spread of CVS was suggested by detection of virus in all ipsilateral direct terminal regions of the second order neurons and in most tertiary olfactory projections. The locus coeruleus, a noradrenergic nucleus which sends direct afferents to the olfactory bulb, never appeared immunoreactive. In spite of a certain inability of CVS to infect some neuron types, the virus appears relevant to provide new information regarding the complex network of olfactory-related neurons into the CNS.