In whole mounts of seminiferous tubules of C3H/101 F1 hybrid mice, spermatogonia were counted in various stages of the epithelial cycle. Furthermore, the total number of Sertoli cells per testis was estimated using the disector method. Subsequently, estimates were made of the total numbers of the different spermatogonial cell populations per testis. The results of the cell counts indicate that the undifferentiated spermatogonia are actively proliferating from stage XI until stage IV. Three divisions of the undifferentiated spermatogonia are needed to obtain the number of A1 plus undifferentiated spermatogonia produced each epithelial cycle. Around stage VIII almost two-thirds of the Apr and all of the Aal spermatogonia differentiate into A1 spermatogonia. It was estimated that there are 2.5 x 10(6) differentiating spermatogonia and 3.3 x 10(5) undifferentiated spermatogonia per testis. There are about 35,000 stem cells per testis, constituting about 0.03% of all germ cells in the testis. It is concluded that the undifferentiated spermatogonia, including the stem cells, actively proliferate during about 50% of the epithelial cycle.