Contraceptive use and the risk of HIV infection in Nairobi, Kenya

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1995 Jan;48(1):61-7. doi: 10.1016/0020-7292(94)02214-3.


Objectives: To determine: (a) the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection among women attending family planning clinics in Nairobi; and (b) the associations between contraceptive use and HIV infection.

Methods: History, clinical examination and laboratory tests were used to obtain data from 4404 women attending family planning clinics in Nairobi. We conducted a case-control study comparing HIV seropositive and seronegative women with regard to previous and current use of contraception.

Results: The overall prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 4.9% (95% C.I. 4.3-5.5). Previous and current use of oral contraceptives (OC), injectable contraceptives and the intrauterine device were not associated with a significant increase in risk, while current users of condoms had a non-significant reduction in risk. OC use was significantly associated with cervical ectopy, but no significant association was evident between ectopy and HIV infection.

Conclusion: The finding of no significant association between past or current OC use and risk of HIV infection suggests that any independent association that may exist between OC use and HIV risk is not large.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Condoms
  • Contraception Behavior*
  • Contraceptive Agents, Female
  • Contraceptives, Oral
  • Family Planning Services
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control
  • HIV Infections / transmission*
  • HIV Seronegativity
  • HIV Seropositivity
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Intrauterine Devices
  • Kenya / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors


  • Contraceptive Agents, Female
  • Contraceptives, Oral