The reactivity of MIB1 antibody on routinely processed paraffin sections was compared with that of Ki-67 antibody on frozen sections of 80 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. The percentage of labelled cells was expressed as the labelling index. MIB1 labelling indices were higher than those of Ki-67 but for each case the two values were strongly correlated (r = 0.91). Ki-67 and MIB1 indices were also correlated to tumour grade and stage (P < or = 0.001). MIB1 indices determined after both formaldehyde and ethanol based Bouin's fluid fixatives did not show any significant difference. MIB1 antibody staining after microwave oven heating of tissue sections is a simple technique for assessing the proliferative fraction of bladder tumours on fixed material. The use of MIB1 antibody permits retrospective studies and should determine whether the proliferation index in bladder carcinoma has the same prognostic value as demonstrated in other types of neoplasms.