Therapy with antituberculosis drugs is not indicated in patients with isolated cervical lymph node infection due to mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT); resectional surgery is the treatment of choice in these cases. The reason for this study was a striking increase in the incidence of this disease in children referred to the University Hospital in Aachen. In the period from 1987 to 1990, we saw only 1 case of nontuberculous mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis among 77 cultured specimens; in contrast to this, out of 85 specimens examined between 1991 and March 1993 were positive, with an increasing tendency. The patients were treated surgically by adequate conservative neck dissection. The outcome was excellent in all cases.