Amplification of the MYCN gene is a well documented genetic alteration of aggressively growing human neuroblastomas. Through cytogenetic studies we have identified neuroblastoma cell lines which, in addition to amplified MYCN, carry amplified DNA not harbouring MYCN. In situ hybridization of biotinylated total genomic DNA to metaphase chromosomes of normal human lymphocytes by reverse genomic hybridization revealed the amplified DNA to be derived from chromosome 12 band q13-14. Subsequent filter analyses showed a 20- to 40-fold amplification of the MDM2 gene, located at 12q13-14, both in three cell lines and in an original tumor, in addition to amplified MYCN. As the apparent consequence of amplification abundant MDM2 protein was present, a part of which was complexed with p53.