Water states in living systems. I. Structural aspects

Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR. 1994;26(4):299-322.


Formation and special consequences of water-ordering are studied and discussed. Based on the knowledge of the water states, a special dynamic clustering (called dynamic frustration) is suggested. This can be an essential mechanism for life processes. A frustration mechanism and its consequences are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Humans
  • Models, Chemical
  • Water / chemistry*
  • Water / physiology*


  • Water