Previous in vitro studies pointed out the role played by several growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor or bFGF, transforming growth factor beta-1 or TGF beta 1, insulin-like growth factor-I or IGF-I) on the proliferation, the differentiation and the fusion of myogenic precursor cells. We attempted to modify the muscle regeneration which follows the denervation-devascularization of extensor digitorum longus in mice, by acting on the growth factors which are possibly involved in this process. The injection of neutralizing antibodies against either bFGF or IGF-I into the muscle at the time of lesion reduced the number and diameter of regenerating myofibres, suggesting a delay in proliferation and/or fusion of activated satellite cells. The neutralization of TGF beta 1 led to an increased number of small regenerating myofibres, which would be due to the promoting effects of the remaining growth factors (i.e. bFGF and IGF-I) on myoblast proliferation. These contrasted results strongly suggest that the growth factors regulate in vivo muscle regeneration and would be accessible tools for future therapy of muscular disorders.