The S glycoprotein of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) has been shown to contain the antigenic sites responsible for eliciting both neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement. To determine the region of S responsible, overlapping DNA fragments spanning the entire S gene were cloned and expressed as fusion proteins by in vitro transcription and translation. Fusion proteins containing relevant epitopes were identified by radioimmunoprecipitation with neutralizing and enhancing FIPV-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). A region spanning residues 509 to 673 reacted with most MAbs tested. Translation in the presence of microsomal membranes did not enhance reactivity, suggesting that glycosylation is not essential for recognition by the MAbs. To localize the antigenic sites further, several MAb-resistant (mar) mutants of FIPV were cloned and sequenced. Amino acid residues that contribute to the neutralizing and enhancing epitopes were localized to two regions, designated A1 and A2, which show partial overlap with the homologous antigenic site A of transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Site A1 contains residues 568 and 591 and is homologous with part of subsite Aa of transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Site A2 contains residues 643, 649, and 656. Double mutations in sites A1 and A2 were found in mar mutants derived from neutralizing and enhancing MAbs 23F4.5 and 18A7.4, while a single mutation in site A2 was found in a mar mutant derived from MAb 24H5.4, which is neutralizing but not enhancing. The data suggest that site A2, which includes residues 643 to 656, is a dominant neutralizing site of FIPV and that sites A1 and A2 may act in concert to induce antibody-dependent enhancement.