Long-term potentiation-inducing stimulation of the perforant path was followed in dentate gyrus granule cells by a dramatic increase of mRNA and protein for Krox20, a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor. Induction of Krox20 required stimulation sufficient to induce LTP and was prevented by NMDA antagonists CPP and MK-801, which block LTP induction. Krox20 protein increased within 20 min of tetanization, was maximal between 1 and 8 h, and was still significantly elevated at 24 h after LTP induction. This prolonged appearance is in striking contrast with the more transient induction of the related molecule, Krox24. The elevation in the mRNA for Krox20 and Krox24 was of similar duration, suggesting that the Krox20 protein has a greater stability and may play a key role in the stabilization of long-term potentiation.