Review of the embryologic development of the pituitary gland and report of a case of hypophyseal duplication detected by MRI

Neuroradiology. 1995 Jan;37(1):3-12. doi: 10.1007/BF00588511.


We describe the clinical manifestations, associated abnormalities, MRI appearances and pathologic significance of a case of hypophyseal duplication. A 16-year-old girl presented with delayed sexual development and history of midline craniofacial anomalies. MRI revealed paired infundibula extending inferiorly to two small pituitary glands, a midline hypothalamic mass, and a midline cleft in the basisphenoid. Twelve cases of pituitary duplication have previously been described. The suggested pathogenesis is duplication of the prechordal plate and anterior end of the notochord during early embryologic development.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / diagnosis
  • Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / embryology
  • Adolescent
  • Cleft Palate / diagnosis
  • Cleft Palate / embryology
  • Cleft Palate / genetics
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Menstruation-Inducing Agents / administration & dosage
  • Menstruation-Inducing Agents / adverse effects
  • Pituitary Function Tests
  • Pituitary Gland / abnormalities*
  • Pituitary Gland / embryology
  • Pituitary Gland / pathology
  • Puberty, Delayed / diagnosis
  • Puberty, Delayed / embryology*
  • Puberty, Delayed / genetics


  • Menstruation-Inducing Agents