Several different types of memory have recently been proposed, some of which are believed to operate within specific areas in the brain. In this article, we will discuss the relationship between the prefrontal cortex and working memory, which is a recently proposed type of short-term memory. The tight relationship between the prefrontal cortex and working memory has been supported by recent human and animal studies. This relationship provides good evidence that a particular type of memory is related to a particular brain structure, and can be used as an important model for understanding the neuronal mechanisms of memory. In this article, we will present a modular model based on recent neurophysiological results and discuss for spatial working memory processes in the prefrontal cortex.