Tennis is a physically demanding sport. A complete conditioning program designed to address both the demands of the sport and the individual player's musculoskeletal base is important in tennis, particularly at the competitive junior and professional levels. Recreational players can certainly use conditioning to improve their level of performance, but the primary concern in this group is general fitness development and injury prevention. In the junior player, physical development should begin with a sound program for physical fitness, including flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, general strength, and muscular endurance. Once a sound fitness base has been developed, the competitive junior players should progress to conditioning for sport specific movements and for injury prevention. At the elite level, tennis players should have previously developed a sound general physical fitness base. These players can then spend a greater percentage of their conditioning time on athletic fitness and sport specific movement training, as well as injury prevention. By addressing all of the components of a total body conditioning program, the possibility of peak performance of the individual tennis player is enhanced.